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Liu Lu,Hou Peng,Liu Zeyuan,Wu Naiyang,Li Weishan,Wu Ruonan,Wang Haijun,Ma Yongjiu,Li Yunkai.Selection of suitable drip-emitters for Yellow River water drip irrigation[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE) ,2021,37(6):99-107
Selection of suitable drip-emitters for Yellow River water drip irrigation
Received:January 06, 2021  Revised:March 05, 2021
Foundation item:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0201504);国家自然科学基金重大项目(51790531)
Author NameAffiliation
Liu Lu 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Hou Peng 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Liu Zeyuan 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Wu Naiyang 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Li Weishan 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Wu Ruonan 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
Wang Haijun 2.Tangshan Zhifu Plastic Machinery Co., Ltd. Tangshan, 064100, China 
Ma Yongjiu 3.Gansu Yasheng-Yameite water saving Co., Ltd., Lanzhou 730000, China 
Li Yunkai 1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China 
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Abstract: Diversified irrigation water has become an increasingly urgent need, due mainly to the limited fresh water resources and water pollution in China. Consequently, Yellow-river water irrigation has attracted more attention in recent decades. Since the Yellow River is the most sediment-filled river on earth, emitter clogging by a high concentration of sand has confined to the application of drip irrigation. Naturally, anti-clogging performance has been a commonly-used indicator to select the appropriate emitters. However, resource waste, high costs, and carbon footprint have posed a great challenge on both the anti-clogging performance and service life, when selecting the emitter products. In this study, an experimental field test was conducted to select emitter and lateral products suitable for drip irrigation with Yellow-River water, concurrently considering the anti-clogging performance, service life, system cost, and carbon footprint. SPSS principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish selection indexes, and then to screen the suitable emitter products for various crops in different years. 16 kinds of emitters were also analyzed using Cristiansen Uniformity (CU) coefficient, including inlaid plain channel emitters, inlaid cylindrical emitters, single-wing labyrinth, and inlaid strip emitters. 3 crops were selected to evaluate the drip irrigation laterals. The experimental water was taken from the Wushen Canal in Hetao Irrigation District, and then filtered with sedimentation basin before entering into the drip irrigation system. Irrigation water was treated through the homogeneous filtration of a sand filter and a laminated filter. The work pressure was maintained at 0.1 MPa in operation. The Yellow-River water was operated for 9 hours/day with a flushing frequency of 60 h/time at a flow rate of 0.45 m/s and a flushing time of 6min, a total of 600 hours (flushing water) and 720 hours (non-flushing water). The results showed that there were significant differences in life cycle, cost and carbon footprint in different types of emitters. The longest life cycle was found in the inlaid plain channel emitters, followed by the inlaid cylindrical, inlaid strip, and single wing labyrinth emitters. The highest cost was found in the inlaid cylindrical emitters, followed by the inlaid plain channel, inlaid strip, and the single wing labyrinth emitters. CU of all emitters showed a slow and then rapid downward trend. The highest carbon footprint was the inlaid cylindrical emitters, followed by the inlaid plain channel, inlaid strip, and the single wing labyrinth emitters. Consequently, it was recommended to use the single wing labyrinth drip emitter with 2.94 L/h for a 1-year usage period (sunflower), plain channel emitter with 1.4 L/h for a 3-year usage period (lycium), and plain channel emitter with 2.8 L/h (with capillary flushing) for a 5-year usage period (alfalfa) in the crop irrigation in Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation Area. Capillary flushing demonstrated relatively low effects on the 1 and 3-year period (sunflower and lycium), however, the effects were more obvious on the 5-year use period (alfalfa). This finding can provide a new perspective for the selection of emitter products in large-scale drip irrigation with the high-sand Yellow-River water.
KeyWord:life cycle  irrigation  silt  emitter  clogging  lateral flushing
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